Typhoid is a gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella bacteria. Symptoms of typhoid include high fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. Cases of typhoid are seen in India as well as in other Southeast Asian countries such as Africa, Central and South America, and Western Pacific countries.
What is Typhoid? (what is Typhoid)
Typhoid is a gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella typhi (S.typhi). High fever, diarrhea, and vomiting are the main symptoms of typhoid. The chances of getting this bacterial infection through contaminated water or food increase to a great extent. s. Typhi enters your intestines through the mouth and stays there for about one to three weeks. It then enters your bloodstream through the intestinal wall. Through the blood, these typhoid bacteria spread to other tissues and organs and hide inside cells, which even your immune cells cannot detect. There is better treatment available for typhoid. However, if left untreated, it can be fatal for you. Possible complications of typhoid include kidney failure, severe GI bleeding, etc.
According to some estimates, about 3-5 percent of people affected by typhoid become carriers of this bacterium. Asymptomatic people can also become carriers of typhoid bacteria.
Symptoms Of Typhoid
Patients with typhoid show symptoms about 1-3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria. The duration of the disease can range from 3 to 4 weeks depending on the severity. The typical incubation time is 7 to 14 days. Some of the major symptoms of typhoid are as follows:-
- constipation or diarrhea
- High fever (103° F)
- loss of appetite
- enlargement of liver and spleen
- red marks on chest
- pain and weakness
- stomach ache
causes Of Typhoid
Typhoid fever occurs when a person consumes foods and water that contain high amounts of the S. typhi bacteria. In addition, the stool of a typhoid patient can also contaminate the water supply around him. In turn, the food supply chain around the patient can also be contaminated.
Diagnosis Of Typhoid
If after looking at your symptoms, the doctor thinks it may be typhoid, he may ask for some tests to be done. To find out if salmonella typhi is present in your body, you may need to have blood, stool, urine culture or bone marrow tests. Bone marrow culture is considered the most sensitive test for typhoid bacteria. The doctor may also suggest other blood tests to check for typhoid DNA and antibodies.
Treatment Of Typhoid
Antibiotics such as ciproflaxin and ceftriaxone are commonly given to treat typhoid. Azithromycin is also another option for its treatment. However, these are not given to pregnant women to eat. In severe cases of typhoid, sometimes there is a perforation in the intestines, which can only be cured through surgery.
People suffering from typhoid fever have problems related to digestion or gastrointestinal. Symptoms related to this bacterial infection include loss of appetite and nausea. You can easily manage typhoid by following a healthy and balanced diet. Nutritionists recommend eating small, but at short intervals. In case of typhoid, easily digestible foods should be consumed. To combat typhoid, one needs to maintain a balance of carbs, fat and protein in the diet. To reduce the symptoms and keep the healing process smooth, you should eat these foods: –
Eat a high-calorie diet. Weight loss in typhoid. Consuming a calorie-rich diet can lead to weight gain. To increase body weight, eat more bread, banana, boiled potatoes.
Take more fluids. In typhoid, there is a lack of water in the body due to high fever and diarrhea. Decreased fluid levels in the body can cause problems with healing. Drink plenty of water and juices prepared from fresh fruits.
Eat boiled rice, baked potatoes. It is easy to digest them.
Include protein-rich foods like legumes, cheese and yogurt in your diet. Avoid consuming meat, as it will not be easy to digest.
Avoid eating high fiber, spicy and fried things. Avoid eating ghee, butter and dairy products for a few days.
Prevention Of Typhoid
The WHO recommends two vaccines to protect against typhoid, an inactivated vaccine shot and a live vaccine.
Vaccine shot: This injection can be taken by people above 2 years of age. It is recommended for people in high risk category to take this dose frequently.
Oral Vaccine :It can be given to people above 6 years of age. It comes in a pack of 4 tablets, three of which are to be taken on alternate days. The doctor may advise you to take the last tablet a week before when you have to visit a high typhoid affected area. All capsules have to be taken one hour before a meal. It is necessary to keep these capsules in the refrigerator. Doctors recommend a booster dose of this vaccine every 5 years for people living in high-risk areas.
Apart from the vaccine, there are many other measures, by adopting which you can avoid typhoid:
- Take care of hand hygiene. Wash hands with soap before eating food and after coming from washroom.
- Avoid street food. Typhoid bacteria are more likely to grow here.
- Wash household utensils with clean water.
- Eat home-cooked fresh and hot food, as higher temperatures reduce the chances of bacterial growth.
- Avoid eating raw vegetables, fruits and drinking contaminated water.
- Keep all your household items (especially kitchen items) clean.