Anemia, with insufficient red blood cells or hemoglobin, can affect anyone of any age and either gender; however, it more often occurs in women of childbearing age, pregnant women, newborns, and the elderly. This article will help you learn how to write a nursing care plan when caring for someone with anemia by assessing the patient’s condition and documenting your actions and advice on treatments and follow-up care that nurses must do.
Anemia is a blood disorder characterized by fewer red blood cells in your blood than usual. Risks associated with anemia include infection, fatigue, and dizziness.
Nursing care may be needed as a preventive measure to help manage symptoms of anemia. Determine if your patient has any risks or concerns associated with anemia, such as those listed below
Also, determine if your patient is currently exhibiting any symptoms of anemia. Some common symptoms are fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath upon exertion. In some cases, infections can occur due to decreased immunity from anemia. Other possible complications include iron deficiency and organ damage from low oxygen levels in your blood.
Anemia risk factors may include pregnancy, menstruation, or menopause, but they can also signify another condition such as liver disease or heart failure.
Diagnosis of anemia includes a physical exam and blood tests to determine blood levels of hemoglobin, red blood cells, and hematocrit. Other diagnostic tools may consist of a bone marrow biopsy or bone scan.
Goals of Care
The goal of nursing care of frail patients is to correct anemia and promote optimal health. Achieving these goals requires a detailed assessment and plan of action. The following outcomes are expected:
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) will be within normal limits.
- Patients are free from symptoms related to anemia.
- Vital signs are within normal limits.
Nursing diagnoses, interdisciplinary collaboration, and plans of care focus on relieving symptoms and reducing risk factors to maintain optimal health.
The following NANDA International nursing diagnoses apply to patients with anemia:
1. Alteration in Comfort (Elder) [NOC-8]: This nursing diagnosis describes a situation where patient perceptions about personal comfort differ from an established norm for that individual or group.
2. Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume (Aged) [NANDA ICD9 CM code R53]: This nursing diagnosis defines an acute or chronic risk associated with insufficient fluid volume to sustain homeostasis, cells, and body structures.
Patients with anemia often have low blood volume, which can be corrected by consuming at least 1200ml of fluid daily. To help determine how much fluid is best for each patient, track their output and input by weighing themselves before and after urination and before and after taking a bath or shower.
This information will help determine if a patient needs more or less fluid in their diet and not receiving enough through food alone. The type of fluid consumed should also be considered.
Patients should be educated about which types of fluid are most appropriate to consume during each time of day. For example, coffee and tea should not be consumed within two hours of bedtime since they contain substances that can stimulate and dehydrate a patient at night.
Alcohol, on the other hand, is hydrating; but it can lead to drowsiness or dizziness if consumed in excess. These side effects could lead to falls, especially in elderly patients.
Also Read : Nursing Care Plan for Fever
Rest is an important part of your daily routine. While you rest, your body performs many activities. It fights against infection and recovers from injury or illness. It also works to repair tissues damaged by disease or trauma.
The result of these activities is that you get stronger and healthier each day. Rest also helps prevent diseases and conditions from getting worse, like a broken bone that has not healed properly or another health problem such as cancer that has spread through your body.
It is important to get enough rest. If you do not get enough rest, your body may be too tired to perform these activities, or it may take longer to recover from illness and injury.
Your overall health will suffer if you do not rest enough. However, if you sleep too much, your health can also suffer because of missed opportunities to work out and exercise, eat a healthy diet, learn new things and stay social with others.
Nursing Care Plan for Anemia
Measurements and Vital Signs
Anemia is a condition in which your blood lacks healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body. The most common signs of anemia are feeling tired, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness. These symptoms are more common with mild anemia; if you’re suffering from severe anemia, you may feel extremely tired and be very pale in appearance. See below for a sample nursing care plan for moderate to severe anemia.
You’ll want to perform blood work and review patient history to determine if you’re dealing with anemia. There are several types of anemia, including iron deficiency, chronic disease, bone marrow problems, and vitamin B12 deficiency.
It’s important to find out which type of anemia you are treating before administering any treatments. Once it is determined what kind of anemia your patient has, adjust your treatment accordingly.