Currently, cancer is seen as a disease that affects both women and men. However, this has only started recently. Until the middle of the twentieth century, cancer was considered a predominantly female disease, as its symptoms were usually more pronounced in women. In the twentieth century, breast and uterine cancer in women became the main focus of public campaigns to encourage the timely detection of malignant tumors. In 1842, a surgeon from Padua, Domenico Rigoni-Stern, demonstrated that nuns did not develop cancer of the uterus, but that they were more prone to breast cancer than average. Later scientific rationale for these observations came from the discovery of HPV (a sexually transmitted cause of cervical cancer of the womb) and women never giving birth (persistent exposure to estrogen) as a cause of breast cancer.
From the 1950s, the development of more effective radiological and invasive diagnostic methods led to the diagnosis of cancer in men as well, and the belief that cancer was a disease of women only.
most common cancer in women
According to Dr. Anadi Pachauri, different types of cancers and their fatality depend on gender-based inequalities. Gender differences are one of the most important observations in the epidemiology of cancer. Part of this disparity is due to anatomical and physiological differences. Cancers that affect both women and men are more common in men than women. A few exceptions to cancers that affect both men and women, which are more common in women, are breast cancer, thyroid, gall bladder, anus, and some lymphomas in young people. The reason for the higher incidence of breast cancer may be due to the presence of larger amounts of breast tissue in women than in men and the effect of hormones of women on glandular tissue.
most common cancer in men
The distribution of risk factors in the Indian subcontinent differs significantly between the two sexes. The main cause of oral and aerodigestive cancer is smoking, chewing tobacco, which is more common in men. In addition, men are more likely to die from cancer, because the most common cancers affecting men are in sites that are far from the skin, so their symptoms appear later. The exception to this is oral cancer.
Gender differences in cancer are due to regulation at the genetic/molecular and hormonal levels. Gene polymorphisms at the genetic/molecular level and drug metabolism in altered enzymes lead to differences in the incidence of cancer in males and females. Sex hormones modulate gene expression in a variety of cancers, such as estrogen playing a key role in inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), which controls differentiation between B and T cells, and the incidence of certain cancers. amends.
ways to control cancer
Gender also plays a role in the decision to control cancer. Genetic and hormonal differences in women and men determine the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which is used regardless of the role of gender, leading to differences in its effectiveness and toxicity.