According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, dengue infection is a common problem occurring in more than 100 countries around the world and approximately 3 billion people live in areas affected by dengue. These include India and other parts of Southeast Asia, China, Africa, Taiwan, and Mexico. According to the data released by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP), over 67,000 dengue cases were registered in India alone in the year 2019. The report also revealed that 2017 was the worst year for India in terms of dengue. Around 1.88 lakh dengue cases were registered in 2017, out of which 325 people lost their lives due to it.
What is Dengue
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection or disease. Dengue causes high fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, skin rashes, etc. Dengue fever is also called breakbone fever. Dengue is caused by the bite of the Aedes mosquito. This infection is caused by serotypes of a virus of the Flaviviridae family – DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 (DENV-3), and DENV-4. cause happens. However, these viruses do not survive for more than 10 days. When dengue infection becomes severe, the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever or DHF (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever) increases. These include heavy bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure, Even the victim may die. DHF is also called dengue shock syndrome. In more severe cases, immediate hospitalization is required, or else the victim may even die. There is no specific or specific treatment available for dengue. Only by recognizing its symptoms can you control it.
Symptoms Of Dengue
Dengue can be either mild or severe. In such a situation, its symptoms are also seen differently. Many times there are no symptoms when mild dengue occurs, especially in children and adolescents. Mild symptoms of dengue begin to appear within four to seven days after being infected. These symptoms include the following symptoms in addition to high fever (104°F):
- Muscle, bone and joint pain
- eye pain
- skin rash
- swollen glands
However, there is an increased risk of developing hemorrhagic fever or DHF (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever) in severe cases. In this condition, the blood vessels get damaged and the platelet count starts decreasing in the blood. In such a situation the following symptoms may be seen:
- severe abdominal pain
- persistent vomiting
- bleeding gums or nose
- blood in urine, stool, or vomit
- bleeding under the skin, which may look like a bruise
- difficulty breathing
- feeling tired
- irritability or restlessness
Risk Factors Of Dengue
There are various factors that can increase the risk of getting infected with dengue. We are giving you information about some such major risk factors below:- Living in
a dengue-prone area Your chances of getting infected with dengue naturally increase.
Prior infection: People who get dengue once, do not have immunity from this viral infection. In this case, when you have dengue for the second time, your chances of getting affected more seriously increase.
Low immunity: People who have weak immunity are also more likely to get dengue. In such a situation, elderly people are more vulnerable to dengue. Also, people suffering from diabetes, lung diseases, and heart diseases also have an increased risk of dengue.
Low platelet count: Dengue becomes more severe when the platelet (clotting cells) count in the blood of the victim becomes very low. In such a situation, if your platelet count level is already low, then you can get infected with dengue sooner than others.
Complications Of Dengue
If dengue infection is severe, it can affect your lungs, liver, and heart. Blood pressure can be very low. In extreme cases, it can even be fatal. The following complications can be seen in the body when dengue infection is severe:
- severe abdominal pain
- accumulation of fluid in the liver
- fluid accumulation in the chest
Diagnosis Of Dengue
Dengue is usually diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms and physical examination. Your doctor may suggest the following tests after evaluating your symptoms –
Complete blood count: This test measures the platelet count in the body. A low count of these cells indicates how severe the dengue has become.
ELISA test for dengue NS1 Ag: This is a blood test, through which dengue virus antigen is detected. However, it may show negative results during the initial stages of infection. In such a situation, if the symptoms of dengue persist in someone, then this test should be done again.
PCR test (PCR for detecting viral DNA): This test may be more effective in the first 7 days after infection when the NS1 Ag
the test result is negative despite the infection being present.
Serum IgG and IgM test: This test is usually done to know the later stage and condition. Once the virus has entered the body, the immune cells start producing IgG and IgM antibodies against the dengue virus. The level of these antibodies gradually increases.
Treatment Of Dengue
There is no specific medicine or exact treatment available for dengue. The doctor may prescribe painkillers such as paracetamol to take to control the fever and pain. Keeping the body hydrated is one of the most important ways to keep dengue under control. In this case, clean water should be drunk in sufficient quantity. However, patients with severe symptoms require hospitalization. In extreme cases, intravenous fluids or electrolyte supplements are given to the patient. In some cases, it is also treated through blood pressure monitoring and blood transfusion. Do not forget to self-administer drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen, as they can increase the risk of bleeding.
Prevention Of Dengue
In May 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a dengue vaccine called Dengvaxia in children aged 9 to 16 years. However, this vaccine has not yet been allowed to be used in India. Dengue is a communicable disease, which is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. In such a situation, due to the non-availability of vaccines, the only way to avoid dengue is to protect yourself from mosquitoes. Use mosquito repellents, mosquito nets as much as possible. Close the doors and windows of your house before dusk. Wear clothes that completely cover the body. You can also adopt the following measures:
- Make sure that water does not collect around. Keep changing the cooler water. Keep the water covered. Mosquitoes lay eggs in these places.
- If there is an open water source that you cannot remove, either cover it or apply a suitable insecticide.