Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. According to a report published by the World Health Organization (WHO), there are currently 10 million new cancer cases worldwide each year. According to new WHO estimates, one in every 10 Indians in India is likely to develop cancer in their lifetime and one in 15 may die due to cancer. Some shocking statistics related to cancer in India have also been revealed in this WHO report:
- Every year 16 million new cancer-related cases are registered in India.
- About 7,84,800 people die due to cancer.
- The six main cancers occurring in India are breast cancer, oral cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer and colorectal cancer.
What is cancer?
Cancer is an unusual and dangerous condition occurring in the body. Cancer occurs when cells in the body begin to grow and divide abnormally. Our body is made up of trillions of cells. Healthy cells grow and divide according to the needs of the body. As cells age or become damaged, these cells also die. In their place, new cells are formed. When someone has cancer, the cells stop doing their job in this way. Old and damaged cells survive instead of dying, and new cells continue to be made even when they are not needed. These extra cells divide uncontrollably, resulting in a tumor. Most cancers are tumors, but blood cancer does not have tumors. Although, Not every tumor is cancerous. Cancer can develop in any part of the body. Usually, it spreads to the surrounding tissues. Abnormal and damaged cancer cells reach other parts of the body to form new malignant and malignant tumors.
More than a hundred including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, lymphoma There are different types cancer. The symptoms and diagnosis of all these cancers are different from each other. Cancer is mainly treated by chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery.
symptoms of cancer
Symptoms of all cancers are different from each other. In such a situation, everyone should be aware of its signs and symptoms, so that diagnosis and treatment can be started by recognizing the symptoms in time. Some common symptoms of cancer are as follows: –
Unexplained weight loss: If your weight starts decreasing rapidly without any reason, then it can be one of the first signs of cancer. There is a problem of weight loss in people suffering from cancer of the pancreas, stomach, or lungs. However, weight loss can also occur in people with other types of cancer.
Extreme fatigue: Feeling tired throughout the day is also one of the important symptoms of cancer. Fatigue is felt more when there is leukemia, colon cancer.
Lump: If any kind of lump or lump is seen in the skin, then it can possibly be a symptom of cancer. Breast cancer, cancers in the lymph nodes, soft tissue, and testicles usually have lumps.
Changes in the skin: If the color of your skin has changed to yellow, black, or red, then it can be a sign of cancer. Along with this, if there is a change in the color and size of moles or warts on any part of the body, then do not ignore it. Also, note that no wound is taking a long time to heal.
Acute pain: Acute pain can usually be an early symptom of bone or testicular cancer, while back pain can be a sign of colorectal, pancreatic, or ovarian cancer. People who have a malignant brain tumor complain of severe headaches.
Changes in bowel movement and bladder function: Constipation, diarrhea, blood in the stool can be signs of colorectal cancer. Bleeding with the pain while urinating can be an early symptom of bladder cancer and prostate cancer.
Swelling in lymph nodes: It is not good to have swollen glands for three to four weeks. An increase in the size of the lymph nodes is also a sign of cancer.
Anemia:In anemia, there is a severe decrease in red blood cells. It can be a sign of hematological cancer.
due to cancer
There is no known reason behind why cancer occurs. However, certain factors can increase your chances of getting cancer. We have to avoid exposure to potentially carcinogenic factors to protect ourselves from this deadly condition. However, it is not within our reach to prevent cancer caused by genetics, which is a major risk factor for getting cancer. Despite this, those who have a family history of cancer should take extra precautions and get screened. This allows early detection of cancer and treatment can be started in time. Some of the major factors, which can increase the chances of getting cancer: –
Chewing tobacco or smoking cigarettes: Consumption of nicotine present in these things can cause cancer in any part of the body. Tobacco and smoking generally increase the risk of mouth cancer, lung cancer, alimentary tract, and pancreatic cancer.
Genes: If there is a history of cancer in the family, then the chances of getting this dangerous disease increase to a great extent. Cancer can also be caused by a faulty gene. For example, Breast Cancer, Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer, etc. can be Hereditary.
Carcinogens in the environment: Everything we eat or drink, the air we breathe, contains many substances or substances that have the potential to increase the risk of getting cancer. Compounds like Asbestos, Benzene, Arsenic, Nickel increase the risk of lung cancer and many other cancers.
Foods: Nowadays most of fruits and vegetables are contaminated with pesticides, which have undesirable effects on the body when consumed. Reheated food, overcooked foods, reheated oils become carcinogenic. Polluted water is also very harmful due to the waste material coming out of factories because it contains a high amount of heavy minerals.
Virus: Hepatitis B and C viruses are responsible for up to 50 percent of liver cancer, while the human papillomavirus is responsible for causing cervical cancer in 99.9% of cases. Also, radiation and sun exposure also increases the risk of cancer to a great extent.
Most cancers are tumors and can be divided into five stages. All these stages of cancer indicate how severe your cancer has become.
Stage 0: This shows that you do not have cancer. However, there are some abnormal cells present in the body, which can develop into cancer.
Stage I: In this stage the tumor is small and the cancer cells spread to only one area.
Stage II and III: In the first and second stages, the size of the tumor increases, and cancer cells start spreading to nearby organs and lymph nodes.
Fourth Stage ((Stage IV) : This is the last and most dangerous stage of cancer, which is also called metastatic cancer. In this stage, cancer starts spreading to other parts of the body.
Doctors try to diagnose cancer by looking at physical symptoms and signs. After looking at your medical history, a physical examination is done. A sample of urine, blood, or stool is taken for the test. You may need to undergo X-rays, computed tomography, MRI, ultrasound, and fiber-optic endoscopy tests if cancer is suspected. Through all these tools, doctors can easily know about the location and size of the tumor. Whether someone has cancer or not is easily known through biopsy. A tissue sample is taken for examination in a biopsy. If the biopsy results are positive, a number of further tests are done to detect the spread of cancer.
The doctor can decide the treatment option based on the type, location, or stage of cancer. Typically, cancer treatment mainly includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplants.
Doctors try to remove cancerous tumors, tissues, lymph nodes or any other cancerous affected area through surgery. Sometimes doctors also perform surgery to find out the severity of the disease. If cancer has not spread to other parts of the body, surgery is the best treatment option.
Chemotherapy is done in several stages. In this process, cancer cells are destroyed through drugs. However, this method of treatment can be quite painful for some. Many side effects are also seen in this, in which hair loss is mainly included. Along with food, medicines are also delivered through injections into the veins.
Radiation therapy Radiation
has a direct effect on cancer cells and prevents them from growing again. In this procedure, cancer cells are tried to be destroyed by using high-energy particles or waves. For some people, only radiation therapy is given in treatment, while some people are given surgery and chemotherapy along with radiation therapy.
Immunotherapy enables your immune system to fight cancer cells.
This therapy is used for the treatment of cancers that are affected by hormones. Hormone therapy significantly improves breast and prostate cancer.